The smooth, heavily-fluted bark gives this medium sized deciduous tree a muscular appearance. Also notable purple, orange, and yellow fall color.
Can tolerate diverse growing conditions but does best in shade, and in deep, rich, moist, slightly acidic soil.
Has no serious diseases.
30' at maturity
25' at maturity
Round to umbrella-shaped
Monoecious: male and female flowers on same plant. Male catkins are yellowish; female catkins are green. Typically blooms in April.
Lustrous dark green leaves in summer turn yellow, orange, red, and purple in fall.
Bark is smooth, gray, and muscular in appearance.
Native of eastern North America from Canada to Mexico. Also commonly known as Blue Beech, Ironwood, Musclewood, and Water Beech. Hornbeams yield very hard and heavy wood but it is not commonly used in woodworking due to the small size of the tree. It has been used to make tool handles, and other small, hard, wooden objects.